Metalworking Technologies: From Traditional Methods to Innovative CNC Solutions

Metalworking Technologies: From Traditional Methods to Innovative CNC Solutions

The metalworking industry uses a variety of processes to achieve the desired shapes and properties of metals. Among them are techniques such as: shotblasting, grinding, cutting, sawing, turning, milling, honing, drilling, and CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining. Each of these methods has its own unique processes, applications and benefits.

Metal grinding: how does it work?

Grinding is the process of removing a layer of material from a metal surface using grinding wheels. Metal grinding produces smooth surfaces, which is essential in many applications such as manufacturing machine parts or tools. The advantages of metal grinding include high accuracy, the ability to achieve a variety of surface finishes, and the elimination of defects such as scratches or bumps.

Metal turning: key information

Turning is another basic metalworking method that involves removing material with cutting tools while the workpiece rotates on its axis. Metal turning produces cylindrical shapes, cones, threads and other geometric forms. The benefits of turning include the speed of the process, high precision and the ability to form a variety of materials, such as steel, aluminum and brass.

Metal milling: basic rules

Milling is a technique that involves removing material with a rotating cutting tool, called a mill. Metal milling produces a variety of shapes and surfaces, such as grooves, gouges or holes. Among the advantages of milling are flexibility in terms of shapes and the ability to perform the process on a variety of materials.

Machining and CNC machining: a comparison

Machining is the general name for processes that involve removing material using cutting tools such as drills, milling cutters or lathe knives. CNC machining is an advanced version of machining in which machines are computer-controlled, allowing for greater precision and speed. Compared to traditional machining, CNC machining offers better repeatability, less risk of errors and the ability to complete more complex projects. Albeit, investment costs for CNC machines can be higher than if traditional machine tools were purchased.

Advanced metalworking techniques

With the development of technology, the metalworking and manufacturing industries have begun to use advanced techniques to improve the quality and efficiency of their processes. Advanced metalworking methods include CNC, laser, vibratory, heat and thermal metalworking.

CNC metalworking: what are its advantages?

Processing on hybrid multi-tasking machining devices grants greater precision, speed and repeatability than conventional methods.

The advantages of CNC machining are:

  • high accuracy,
  • realization of complex projects, e.g. workpieces of complicated shapes,
  • automation and repeatability of processes,
  • lowering the risk of errors.

CNC milling: what are its capabilities?

CNC milling is a metalworking technique that removes material using a computer-controlled mill.

The capabilities of CNC milling include:

  • obtaining a variety of shapes and surfaces,
  • high repeatability,
  • the ability to machine a variety of materials, such as steel, aluminum and brass,
  • process automation.

Laser metal machining: how does it work?

Laser metal machining is an advanced technique that uses a high-powered laser beam to cut, saw or weld metals. The process produces the desired shapes and surfaces with minimal risk of damaging the material. Advantages of laser metal machining include:

  • high accuracy of laser cutting and sawing (about ±0.05 mm/m),
  • no need for cutting tools,
  • the ability to cut a variety of materials, such as steel, aluminum, copper and titanium,
  • minimal risk of damage to the material due to low heat input,
  • use of intelligent control programs.

Vibratory metalworking: what is it?

Vibratory machining (vibratory grinding, tumbling) is a technique that uses vibration to smooth, polish or clean a metal’s surface using a loose abrasive. The process is particularly useful for hard-to-reach areas such as small holes or corners.

Advantages of vibratory metal machining include:

  • smoothing and polishing surfaces without damaging the material,
  • the ability to process hard-to-reach areas,
  • reduction in time and labor compared to manual polishing,
  • the ability to process materials such as steel, aluminum and brass.

Heat and metal plastic processing differences and applications

Heat machining and plastic machining of metals are processes that change the properties of a material through heating and cooling. Heat machining aims to improve hardness, strength and corrosion resistance, while plastic machining is mainly used to change an object’s shape or size.

Metal heat treatment (annealing, hardening and tempering) improves mechanical properties such as hardness, strength or corrosion resistance.

Metal forming (forging, stamping, rolling, drawing) aims to permanently deform metals and their alloys by exceeding the yield point. As a result, the components achieve the desired shape, but at the same time their physical properties (e.g. thickness, transverse dimensions) are not altered.

Tools and machinery for metalworking

The metalworking industry uses a variety of tools and metalworking machines to accurately and efficiently transform raw materials into finished products. In this section, we will look at the different types of machining equipment, the necessary tools, and the advantages and applications of CNC machines in metalworking.

Types of metalworking machines

Depending on the type of metalworking, different machines are used to achieve the desired results:

  • lathes: used for turning metals, i.e. removing material by rotating the workpiece around an axis (e.g. AVIAturn 30 M Lathe),
  • shotblasting machines: shotblasting chambers (also known as blastrooms, shotblasting cabins) are devices used to clean the surface of large-size work pieces (e.g. steel constructions, railcars, silos) by means of an abrasive (e.g. metal shot) propelled by compressed air (e.g. SG2 Shotblasting Machine),
  • milling machines: used for milling metals, that is, removing material with a mill tool (e.g. FN-20 Milling Machine),
  • grinders: used for grinding metals, i.e. smoothing the surface with an abrasive tool (e.g. JOTES MC 50 Centerless Grinder),
  • drills: used for drilling holes in metals with a rotary cutting tool (e.g. MEX-30 PF Drill),
  • honing machines: these precisely finish internal cylindrical surfaces, smooth, increase durability, and prepare surfaces for further processes (e.g. SET-200 Honing Machine),
  • rolling machines: thread rolling is a very fast process, which increases tool lifespan and the tensile strength of a thread. Rolling and extrusion of external threads using roller heads ensures very high product quality (e.g. UPW-16 Thread Roller),
  • threaders: compact and efficient thread-cutting machines, used both in large and small workshops. Thanks to their high-torque servo drive and swivel head, they enable fast and precise thread cutting (e.g. Roscamat-400 [730 W] Pantograph Pneumatic Dual Arm Threader),
  • buzz saws: they precisely cut thrugh wood, metal, plastic and stone, enable straight and angled sawing, as well as quick splitting and formatting materials (e.g. Cobra 35 AX DAW Buzz Saw)
  • band saws: allow straight and curved cuts, block sawing and detailing in carpentry and metallurgy (e.g. Shark 260 Band Saw),
  • bending machines: used to bend metals along a specific line (e.g. KM2/1250 Edge Bending Machine),
  • CNC machining centers: versatile computer-controlled machines that allow different types of metalworking to be carried out in a single process (e.g. Mazak INTEGREX 200-IV ST Lathe-Milling Machine).

Tools for processing: what is essential?

There are various types of tools that are essential in metalworking:

  • cutting: such as mills, drills, or lathe knives, used to remove material,
  • abrasive: used for grinding and polishing metal surfaces,
  • measuring: such as calipers, micrometers, thickness gauges, checkers or spirit levels* to check dimensions and shapes,
  • clamping: used to hold workpieces in position during machining, such as vices or lathe chucks.

(*For more information on measuring tools, see the entry “Threads in practice – from identification to effective use in pneumatic systems”)

The metalworking department at CPP PREMA

This is the place where a variety of metalworking services for the production of pneumatics, hydraulics and production line automation are carried out. Depending on the customers’ demands, we offer services that include various techniques along with the assistance of our specialists.

What does the metalworking facility offer?

The full range of services offered by metalworking facilities include, but are not limited to:

  • metal turning,
  • metal milling,
  • metal grinding,
  • CNC machining,
  • laser machining,
  • vibratory machining,
  • heat and plastic machining.

Metal processing services offered by CPP “PREMA” S.A. include:

  • shotblasting,
  • grinding,
  • cutting,
  • sawing,
  • longitudinal and transverse turning,
  • milling,
  • honing,
  • bending,
  • hardening.

Precision metalworking: what does it mean?

Precision metalworking is an advanced form of machining that achieves high dimensional and form accuracy of parts. It incorporates various techniques, such as:

  • electrical discharge machining (electrocution): a method involving the removal of material by means of an electric spark,
  • micromachining: a technique that makes it possible to fabricate very small parts with high precision,
  • ultrasonic machining: a process involving the removal of material with ultrasounds,
  • chemical machining: a method involving the removal of material by means of chemical reactions.

Metalworking services: full range

Professional metalworking is carried out by our specialists, who have the necessary knowledge and experience. Within the full range of metalworking services, you can find, among other things:

  • designing and manufacturing tools,
  • producing prototypes and small batches of components,
  • installing and assembling finished components,
  • quality controlling and measuring services,
  • advising and assisting in the selection of appropriate techniques.

The price of metalworking: what affects the cost?

The price of metalworking is affected by various factors, which can be divided into three main categories:

  • materials: the cost of the raw material, its quality and the quantity needed to perform the service,
  • technology: the cost associated with the use of appropriate tools, machines and machining techniques,
  • time: the time needed to perform the service, including the time of specialists and machines.

It is worth noting that the type of metalworking method used can affect the service’s cost. For example, metalworking used in the aerospace or automotive industries may be more expensive due to higher requirements for precision and quality workmanship.


The metalworking industry uses a variety of machines, such as lathes, shotblasting machines, milling machines and grinders to precisely transform raw materials into finished products. Cutting, abrasive and measuring, tools are essential for these processes.

CPP “PREMA” S.A. offers a full range of machining services, including turning, milling, grinding, CNC and vibratory machining. Thanks to the experience of specialists combined with modern technologies, we are able to ensure high quality and efficiency of metalworking processes.

We encourage you to familiarize yourself with the rich offer of machining in CPP “PREMA” S.A., as well as to contact us and work together.